Part 1 of my Inferno tour consists of eleven cantos covering Circles 1-7. Part 2 will also span eleven cantos, but covering Circle 8 alone. Circle 8 will be over 40% of the entire tour, and it’s worth reflecting over why Dante devoted so much breakdown to the sin of fraud.
Circle 8 is called Malebolge, which means “evil ditches”, and there are ten of them. (Click on the right image for full view.) According to Dorothy Sayers:
“Malebolge is the image of the City in corruption: the progressive disintegration of every social relationship, personal and public. Sexuality, ecclesiastical and civil office, language, ownership, counsel, authority, psychic influence, and material interdependence — all the media of the community’s exchange are perverted and falsified, till nothing remains but the descent into the final abyss where faith and trust are wholly and forever extinguished.” (Inferno, p 185)
That’s about as accurate a description of Circle 8 as any. However, I am revising Ditches 3 and 5. In Dante’s scheme, Ditch 3 punishes the ecclesiastical crime of simony, which is archaic in today’s age. It was part of the feudal structure by which clergy members (like priests and bishops) became the hand-picked pawns of secular lords and emperors. I can’t come up with an example of a modern simoniac. Ditch 5 punishes barratry (the secular equivalent of simony) and also grafters who use their political office to take bribes. Grafters can easily be grouped with the thieves and extortionists on Ditch 7.
In place of simony and grafting/barratry, I’m substituting categories that Dante would have surely added if he had lived in today’s world. He never knew woke-left propaganda, alt-right conspiracy theories, yellow journalism, and fake news like we have it today. My new Ditch 3 punishes snowflakes — woke college professors, public speakers, or commentators who have a large platform. They are fraudulent because they subordinate facts to feelings. My new Ditch 5 punishes cranks — crackpot scholars and conspiracy theorists.
This revision also carries the benefit of freeing up Ditch 10 to be reserved for the falsifiers of something concrete: forgers, counterfeiters, and identity thieves. Dante had constructed Ditch 10 as a “catch-all” punishing ground for any falsifier, including liars in general (“falsifiers of words”), but liars and deceivers are spread out across many Ditches, in some form or another, including, now, on my new Ditches 3 and 5.
So this, tentatively, is what Circle 8 will look like, and the souls I plan to see there.
|Circle 8||Souls Punished
||Sinners I encounter in this Ditch
||Panderers and Seducers||Jeffrey Epstein (P), Gerald Sandusky (S)|
||Flatterers||Giulio Alberoni, Joseph Goebbels, Mike Pence|
||Snowflakes||Linda Sarsour, Reza Aslan, Laurie Charles|
||False Prophets||Charles Taze Russell, Ophira and Tali Edut, Tim Lahaye and Jerry Jenkins, David Koresh, Brian David Mitchell|
||Cranks and Conspiracy Theorists||Oliver Stone, Michael Baigent, Alex Jones, Maajid Nawaz, Steven Brandenburg|
||Hypocrites||Barack Obama, Bill Cosby, Michael Landon, James Buchanan|
||Thieves (Robbers, Extortionists, Launderers)||Carl Gugasian, Darnell Riley, Francisco Correa Sanchez, Abdulla Yameen|
||Counselors of Fraud||Bernie Madoff, Martin Shkreli, L. Ron Hubbard, Mariam Al-Sohel|
||Sowers of Discord, Inciters of Rebellion||Daniel Shays, Donald Trump|
||Forgers, Counterfeiters, Identity Thieves||Matvei Golovinski, Charles Dawson, Konrad Kujau, Walter Fritz, Morton Smith, Wesley Weber, Frank William Abagnale|
And here are the punishments I came up with for Ditches 3 and 5:
|Circle 8||Souls Punished
||Contrapasso: Punishment Fitting the Sin
||Panderers and Seducers||They are whipped by devils while marching. The devils apparently gain sexual pleasure by inflicting pain on those who were either pimps or obtained sexual pleasure by abuse of trust.|
||Flatterers||They live in the shit they spoke in life — plunged into a lake of excrement.|
||Snowflakes||They have their lips sown shut, forced to march on a narrow line to a specific drumbeat. As they subordinated truth to their personal feelings, and policed the speech (or even tried to ban speech) of those who spoke truth, so now in death they have their lips sown shut, unable to ever speak again. And because they manufactured offenses, castigating people for trivial causes, they are now flailed with a spiked ball for even slightly stepping out of line or missing a single beat.|
||False Prophets||They walk with heads twisted backwards, destined to look only behind through eyes blinded by tears.|
||Cranks and Conspiracy Theorists||They sit against the walls of the ditch with their eyes torn out, continually screaming in fear. As they feared every phantom menace they couldn’t see any real evidence for, so now they can’t see anything at all, and suffer extreme paranoia.|
||Hypocrites||They walk in gilded cloaks lined with lead. As in life, they shine on the outside but are lifeless on the inside.|
||Thieves (Robbers, Extortionists, Grafters)||They have their hands tied behind their backs by snakes and suffer a horrible metamorphosis, stealing each others identity, unable to distinguish what’s “mine” and what’s “yours” after all the transitions.|
||Counselors of Fraud||They used their eloquence to mislead people and rip them off, and so are wrapped in tongues of fire which conceal them, just as in life their speech concealed their fraudulent thoughts.|
||Sowers of Discord, Inciters of Rebellion||They divided people in life, so now in death they are hacked and divided into a dismembered state, forced to drag their mutilated bodies around the ditch. Their wounds heal as they march the circuit, and then the devil cuts them open again.|
||Forgers, Counterfeiters, Identity Thieves||Forgers are afflicted with leprosy, counterfeiters with dehydration, and identity thieves are driven insane. Their physical rottenness mirrors the rottenness of their souls that caused them to falsify things.|