What Did Paul Mean by "All Israel" in Rom 11:26? (I)

After a poll and follow-up discussion about what Paul meant by fulfilling the law, it’s time to see how he thought God would fulfill his promises to “all Israel”. So please vote in the poll below, and I’ll give my take on the matter later.

UPDATE: I stopped the poll after 25 votes. The result was almost a three-way tie.

When Paul said that “all Israel will be saved” in Rom 11:26, to what does “Israel” refer?

8 votes — A spiritual Israel composed of Judean and Gentile believers (Gal 6:16; Rom 9:6-8)

8 votes — A remnant of faithful Judeans (Rom 11:1-10; Rom 9:27)

9 votes — The whole of Israel; the Judean people in general

I guess I was the tie-breaker (though the first voter). I believe that Paul was referring to the whole of ethnic Israel in Rom 11:26 and will explain why in a follow-up post.


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